I’d like to take the opportunity to layout the design of our property and explain a little about what we have done and where we are going with this project. My partner and I live on a typical, quarter acre lot, about ten miles from downtown Miami, Florida. We share this space with one cat, one dog, and a small flock of Indian Runner ducks. When started, the property consisted of a single family home, driveway access, a 12,000 gallon swimming pool, a pool deck, a six foot privacy fence and not much else other than a few large trees.
My vision for the property was for it to operate as a living machine, providing for much of our needs and producing most of it’s own inputs. It needed to except and recycle, most if not all, waste and provide a sanctuary to local flora and fauna.
It is our hope to become as food self-reliant as possible while decreasing our waste and carbon footprint. A break down of our food self-sufficiency aspirations are as follows:
75%-85% of our vegetable and staple needs met
50 % of our fruit needs met
100% medicinal herbs
40% of our non-vegetable protein needs met. This would be derived from mushrooms, duck eggs and aquaculture production.
Maximum diversity in the garden is a must. Emergency food and water (and hopefully power someday), should be maintained in the event of a hurricane or other disaster. As well as providing for our needs, the site should be a good example of urban permaculture and demonstrate what can be accomplished on an average urban/ suburban block of land.
The garden is laid out using a system of zones and sectors. Zone one being the most intensive to zone five basically being an untended forest or otherwise, wild area.
The design layout:
Starting with zone zero ( the house), we exit our back kitchen door onto the pool deck where we have located our zone one kitchen garden. This consists of sixty-five grow bags on top of pallets and builder blocks, out of duck reach. We have arranged them in a keyhole configuration for easy access. Another twenty bags make up a melon tunnel between the pond and shade house. The kitchen garden produces most of the things we use daily like, salad greens and culinary herbs. Directly beside the kitchen door is a 500-gallon rain water collection tank which supplies most of our drinking water.
Directly behind the kitchen garden, to the north, is a 12,000-gallon swimming pool converted to an aquaculture fish pond. Here we raise edible fish and aquatic plants. Duck manure fertilizes zooplankton and algae which in turn feed the fish, so our only input here is the pump electricity. A custom designed reed bed system filters and aerates the pond water. Read more about the pond conversion here.
There is a duck house behind the pond on the edge of zone one and two. This is a deep litter system that houses a small flock of Indian Runner ducks. Directly beside the coop is a duck yard and “duckuzzi”, which we use to fertigate part of the food forest along the north border.
Also, in zone one, to the east of the pond, is a three hundred and fifty square foot shade house. Here we raise our seedlings and house our bath tub worm bins. The north east corner of the property is devoted to compost. Here we mostly make and turn Berkeley compost piles. Beside the compost area is a banana circle which excepts any bulky material we cannot easily compost. We hope to be adding a dry compost toilet to this area very soon.
Heading clockwise from the compost area, we pass a bamboo hedge which we use for crafts and trellis building. The bamboo hedge also functions as a wind break as this is our storm wind sector. Next we pass a work shop/ storage shed with a 275-gallon rainwater collection tank. Continuing along the east side of the house is the zone two trellis container garden. This consists of about one hundred grow bags with a bamboo A-frame trellis. This is our main crop garden producing: beans, tomato, and cucumber in the dry season and beans and Asian gourds in the wet season. Here there is another 275-gallon rainwater collection tote.
Finally, as you exit the backyard, there is a small plant nursery where tree seedling are propagated.
The backyard centers around the pond. Zone one is intensely managed and all the elements; pond, kitchen garden, shade house, duck house and compost area are positioned so that there is a constant and harmonious interaction between elements. Waste from the kitchen is cycled through the compost, worm bins and ducks and returned to the garden. Vegetable starts are coming from the shade house, grown on compost, on a weekly basis. We harvest, and the feedback loop continues. Read more about how we cycle nutrient through the garden here.
In part two of this article I will be explaining the rest of the garden including the food forest, micro mango orchard, and the zone two perennial container garden. Until next time.
Six months into our pool to pond conversion and the problem really has become the solution. For some time, we had been flirting with the idea of doing something productive with our unwanted 12,000 gallon in-ground swimming pool. It was during my Permaculture design course with Geoff Lawton last year that I decided to commit to a full conversion to an aquaculture wetland. What seemed like my most daunting project to date has turned out to be one of the best decisions I’ve made.
The design is basically a simple reticulated system. Water is collected from the surface of the pool by the skimmer and the bottom by the pump. The water is then pumped up to a radial flow filter. The Flow filter forces the water to drop what its carrying, preventing the gravel reed bed from getting clogged with sediment.
From here, gravity takes over. Water meanders through three tiered 30”x60” (76 cm x 152 cm) bath tubs, falling from one to the other via a spreader pipe. The water then falls back to the pool through a pipe hidden in a piece of bamboo.
There is a small air pump hidden under the deck and two air stones inside the pool. Water falling from the reed beds, along with the aerator, supply all the oxygenation the system needs. I thought the corner deck would be a nice place to hang out and relax. It also serves as a place to hide some of the plumbing. The deck shades a portion of the pond as well helping to cool the water. Plus any fisherman can tell you fish love to hangout under docks.
Implementing the design:
First step was to do as much research as possible given the fairly uncommon nature of this kind of retrofit. YouTube was indispensable for this task, and Geoff lent some guidance. From here, I could start sketching out some rough ideas and sourcing parts and materials.
Next step was to put together a plant list. Collecting plant material early on allowed me to propagate clones of my aquatic plants while I was going through the design and construction phase. Most aquatic plants have dense tuber like rhizomes that make it simple to divide plants for propagation. An old bath tub from Craigslist made a handy nursery, and with the rampant growth of aquatics I quickly had a good supply of plant starts to kick off the system.
I did my best at this point to finalize the design on paper. That being said, there were a lot of variables that would have to be figured out in situ.
Sourcing pumps and calculating pump size would come next. I decided to go with a 4,000 gallon per hour German made pump from Oase. When choosing a pump you really don’t want to be undersized especially when lifting water. Solar pumps were considered but I decided this would over complicate my first venture into aquaculture. Regardless, savings in electrical costs would be significant over the old pool pump. In the event of prolonged power failure, I will be forced to either destock or run a generator.
Once I had everything I needed on site: pump, bathtubs, gravel, flow filter parts, etc. the pool was drained and the inside was pressure washed.
A note on draining: If you are planning this type of conversion and have a regular chlorinated pool you do not need to drain the pool. Simply stop adding chemicals and continue to run the pump for a week or two. The agitation from the pump will evaporate off the chlorine. Once the pool is green you’re safe to proceed. If you have a salt water system, as I did, you will need to drain the pool and thoroughly clean any salt residue off the inside. This gave me a chance to inspect the inside of the pool so I didn’t mind.
Next, I positioned the reed bed tubs, leveled them, and linked them together with the spreader pipes. After positioning the tank for the radial flow filter, I started constructing the wood enclosure. It’s a good idea to thoroughly test your reed bed system before completely closing it in.
The only thing left was to construct some rock piles in the bottom of the pool for habitat and position the grow bags with plants on the steps and ledges. I filled the pool a few weeks later. Once the system was stable, I added the Gambusia and grass shrimp. Tilapia and crayfish would come later. Lastly I added a bamboo raft of Vetiver grass and another raft with native ferns and kang kong ( ipomea aquatica).
Keep in mind, when you first fill the pool you are going to get an initial algae bloom that will make the water resemble pea soap. Don’t freak out this is natural. After the plant roots start to spread and the gravel builds a thin layer of bioslime, the water should start to clear. Bioslime is the algae and microorganisms that actually clean the water. This should take a few weeks depending on your climate. Tadpoles are very effective at controlling surplus algae as are carp. Frogs and tadpoles are also a good bioindicator due to there sensitivity to toxins so I try to encourage them.
If you are designing a natural swimming pool, your work is finished. The water should be clear in no time. If you are designing an aquaculture system, you can start adding tilapia, crayfish, or whatever species you prefer once the system seems stabilized. The great thing about aquatic systems is if it looks good and there is life in it, its probably is quite safe.
The most satisfying part of this project is seeing the ponds interactions with the other elements in my total design for the property. The pond has become the central element of the garden, interacting with the kitchen garden, duck area, hoop house, and compost area. It’s successful because each element has multiple functions and it’s functions are backed up by multiple elements. Plants come from the hoop house and go to the pond and kitchen garden. Fodder comes from the pond and kitchen garden and goes to the ducks who in turn supply fertilizer to the pond and kitchen garden. Mulch comes from the pond and goes to the compost area and kitchen garden, and so forth. There are all kinds of wildlife interactions happening between the pond and the surrounding food forest. I’m looking forward to seeing these connections become stronger and more dynamic. It can only get better and better with time!
Tank 40g $99
Plants $50 ( most were collected locally but I did buy a few )
Plumbing $150 ( some salvaged pipe was used )
Bath Tubs $105
Grow bags $52.60
Gravel & soil $50
Fish & shrimps $150