A food forest is an assembly of plants, most of which are useful to human beings, that mimic the form and function of a native forest. The idea is that by partnering with nature, many of the tasks once fulfilled by the gardener or orchardist, or even chemist, are now taken up by natural elements. Fruit, vegetables, fiber, fungi, and timber can all be produced in one intensive space rather than multiple broad spaces. While at the same time providing habitat for local flora and fauna, cleaning the air and water, offering shelter, and building soil. By exploiting the multi layered aspect of a forest from canopy to root zone there is no longer the need to have the veggie garden separate from the orchard and the herb garden separate from the aquaculture pond, making food forests ideal for the backyard gardener looking for a little more self reliance.
Over the last ten years or so the idea of edible landscaping, especially in the cities and suburbs, has become a trendy one. A whole cottage industry of edible landscape businesses has sprung up over the last decade. Lately I’ve noticed a lot of these companies adding “food forest” to their repertoire. I’ve even seen some market gardeners trying to get in on the action as a side gig. Undoubtably many of the people offering this service are doing wonderfully creative and thoughtful work, but I feel the need to air a word of caution here.
Don’t get me wrong, I think any reason to plant a tree is a good one! And anything that gets families out of the house and more interested in ecology and self-reliance is a good thing. But from what I’ve been seeing as of late I feel the need to point out one important distinction: randomly throwing together a bunch of fruit trees and plants doesn’t a food forest make. Food forests plantings take careful design, consideration and planning. The interactions between elements in a food forest can be dynamic and complex yielding amazing fertility and satisfaction. Unfortunately, without careful planning and a little experience those interactions can quickly become dysfunctional. That’s not to say these systems can’t work themselves out over time, but it concerns me that enthusiastic land owners will become disillusioned before the system has a chance to balance itself out.
Here are a few tips that could help you when shopping around for someone to help you implement a food forest planting:
Complete a PDC ( Permaculture Design Certificate) course. This isn’t essential, but It will give you a base knowledge of the design principles and concepts at play.
Look for a designer/ installer who has completed a PDC with a reputable teacher. Again, this isn’t essential, but it does show the person has put forth the effort to educate themselves. Alternatively, look for someone who has studied under a reputable food forest designer or agroforestry professional. If the potential candidate has both credentials all the better.
Look for a designer/ installer who has their own personal food forest planting with some age to it. Again, not essential, there are a lot of great designers out there that don’t even own land; however, the experience of living with this kind of system on a daily basis offers a unique insight into how it will be used.
Visit some food forests in your area. You will be surprised how many are around once you start looking, some going back generations even if the people on the land have never heard the term “food forest”. You’ll find they often have themes depending on the person’s background, for example: Caribbean or Vietnamese. This can lend insight into your personal goals.
Ask your potential designer/ installer for a plant list. This is a really fast way to weed out the inexperienced. An experienced designer will know the plants that are adapted to your climate. For example, if you live in the tropics and the person is recommending Olives and Pomegranate (Mediterranean species ), that probably isn’t a good sign. At the same time, clients often come to me wanting to grow species not adapted to their area because that is what they grew up eating. A good designer knows when to say no, even if it could potentially cost them the job.
Ask if your designer is willing to provide you with a zone and sector map, as well as a final design drawing. This may be an extra expense, but it shows that the person has your long-term goals and happiness in mind. This will likely save you so much headache and money in the long run the cost will be negligible.
Does your potential candidate complete an extensive walkthrough with you? In my design practice, I require a ninety-minute walkthrough consultation with perspective clients at a minimal fee before starting any projects with them. This insures I have a good grasp on their goals, resources and limitations. It also includes thing like level of self-sufficiency, foods you eat the most, important medicinal plants, available time, aesthetic requirements, etc. Often what you think you want isn’t what is really important to you. A good designer can suss that out with you.
Have fun! This should be an enjoyable process. Interview a few candidates then go with the person you click with the most and who seems most competent. Food forests are dynamic fluid systems that are constantly in flux. A casual approach and a little patience will increase your chances of long-term satisfaction. Remember a food forest must be allowed to demonstrate its evolution, as so you should.
Banana is one of the most popular fruits in the world. And for good reason, it appeals to our primate souls. You could say we evolved alongside fruits like banana and mango. Many botanists and anthropologists would argue these plants had us do their bidding, helping them to disseminate all over the world. And it’s not just humans. Everything from insects to birds, marsupials to bats love bananas.
Banana is in my top three favorite fruits by far. I’m not talking about the artificially ripened, cardboard things you get in the grocery store. Those are the Cavendish variety of banana and likely the only banana most people know. They are grown ubiquitously in mono-cultures all over the tropics because they are thick skinned and ship well. They are picked green, shipped thousands of miles, ripened with ethylene, and have practically no flavor compared to most of the 70 other banana varieties.
My love of the banana plant doesn’t stop at the fruit either. In my opinion the banana plant is one of the most important and useful plants of the tropics, up there with the likes of bamboo and the coconut palm. It may even be one of the keys the saving the forests of the tropics, and reversing some of the effects of climate change.
The banana plant is a herbaceous plant, not a tree, in the Musaceae family. The underground part of the banana plant is commonly referred to as the corm. From the corm grows a pseudostem, or flowering stalk, made up of tightly wound leaves. After fruiting the stalk dies back and the corm sends out another shoot, or sucker. In cultivation after a stalk has fruited it is generally cut down to allow room for the next generation of stalks. Banana plants are propagated for the most part by vegetative reproduction. A portion of the corm is removed and becomes the base for a clone of the original plant.
The focus of this article is to explore the myriad ways the humble banana plant is useful and multifunctional.
First up on the list is the all important face stuffing. As I touched on above, there are about seventy varieties of banana with something for everyone. There are dessert bananas like Mysore and Ice Cream ( Blue Java), cooking bananas and plantains, and acid bananas like the Brazilian. Some are dwarf. Some are variegated. There are red, yellow, and green fruit. And the fruit can be eaten ripe or cooked unripe. The flowers and inner part of the stem are commonly used in Indian and Indochinese cuisine. The leaves are used to wrap food like tamales in Central America. In South East Asian banana leaf wraps are used for steaming or grilling rice dishes, fish, and desserts. In Polynesian culture meat and vegetables are wrapped in banana leaf before being buried in pits of smoldering coals for slow cooking. The leaves of banana can even be used as a kind of natural plate.
Pioneering and soil building. This is the area where the banana plant is underutilized but has the most potential. Dense plantings of Musa shade out and help get over stubborn tropical grasses when attempting to kickstart a natural succession from prairie to forest. As the forest species get established the banana’s great biomass can be dropped down to nurture the young trees. Swiss farmer and researcher Ernst Gotsch often uses banana stalks to quickly build soil and to fertilize fledgling trees when pioneering new forest plantings in his Syntropic system.
In areas with enough rainfall, banana plants can be planted on contour on slopes for stabilizing eroding soils. The cut stems of the plants can be laid out and pinned up on contour to help trap mulch and build soil, supporting young trees planted behind. In addition, water logged trunks of banana laid out around plantings or lining pathways act as a kind of slow release irrigation.
If I had my current garden to do over again the first thing I probably would have done is plant every square inch with banana and nitrogen fixing trees to quickly shade out the grass and start a mulch source going. As I was ready to plant my fruit trees I could then drop down some select banana plants and plant my trees into a nest of nurturing banana mulch.
The great biomass of Musa functions as a significant carbon sink. At harvest, banana plants (with root mass) provide about 25 tons per hectare*. With significant draw down of atmospheric carbon and the increase in oxygen production broad acre banana polycultures become a valuable tool in the fight against climate change. Additionally, these plantings increase rainfall down wind and help cool the air through evapotranspiration. This biomass can also be a significant source of organic material for biogas production.
Banana plants produce fast growing and nutritious fodder for domestic animals like cattle and goats. We use shredded banana suckers to feed our compost worms and ducks on our urban homestead.
Pit gardens like banana circles are a convenient way to dispose of gray water, rough mulch material, and manure while producing food. Musa leaves make a handy roof thatch and can be used to glee small ponds.
In Japan high end traditional garments are made from banana fiber.
Banana clumps provide habitat as well. In our garden every banana stalk, we have a lot, has a tree frog or two living in the folds of it’s leaves. Their chorus rings out in the night from stand to stand. The flowers are a significant source of forage for bees and they are a host plant to moths like the giant leopard moth (Hypercompe scribonia). The cut stalks rotting on the ground are a denizen of earth worms, wood lice, and countless micro organisms.
Lastly, banana plants make an extremely attractive landscape plant and provide some windbreak protection. Nothing says tropical garden like the banana plant.
These are just a few of my favorite qualities of and uses for the banana plant. There’s sure to be a part two to this article as my love affair with Musa continues.
* [ Penn, J., New Scientist 20 May ‘85 ( from Permaculture a designers’ manual by Bill Mollison)].
I would love to sit here and tell you about my wonderful zero waste household and about how transitioning to a totally closed loop lifestyle was really fast and effortless. But the fact of the matter is that simple isn’t true. I’m making this distinction right up front because I want you all to realize that transitioning to a waste free lifestyle is a process.
That being said, we have substantially cut down the amount of waste that we produce, or rather that we allow to leave our property I should say. You see everything produces waste. The question is rather can that waste be put to productive use? If the answer to that question is no, that thing must be eliminated. Just to be up front we still do produce some single use plastic waste. But these are wastes products we are trying to gradually eliminate as we find alternatives or go without. It is possible to eliminate these things but the point of this article is less about how we cut down on our waste but rather how we channel most of our waste into what I call “productive streams”.
First off let’s define one thing so that we know exactly what it is we are dealing with. Anything in surplus not put to productive use, no matter how benign, becomes a pollutant. Often this occurs in the form of misplaced energy. Let’s take for instance animal manure. Every farmer and gardener knows this can be a precious resource that can produce results of spectacular fertility when growing food. On the other hand having chicken shit piling up to ones knees can produce serious problems. In that example the waste resource, chicken manure, wasn’t being put to productive use. Even a surplus of good advice can overcrowd ones mind when making an important decision.
To simplify things most of our waste falls into one of two categories, that which can be absorbed back into our system, and that which cannot. The following concerns itself with the former. All our organic waste is directed back to the system and at living resources. Food scraps, manures, cardboard, yard debris, even non-synthetic textiles. If it has lived before, it can live again!
All organic waste is directed to one of the following seven productive waste streams. It should be noted here that these are dynamic systems, and that like all good permaculture elements there is a fair amount of redundancy which ensures success.
This is the preferred destination for most of our kitchen scraps. In fact, our worm bins are intentionally located right next to the kitchen garden on the way to the duck coop so we pass them every morning. They receive all our vegetable peelings and such from the night before. As the name says, these are bins that house compost worms, not earthworms! This is an important distinction to make. If you dig up some earthworms from your yard and chuck them in a bin they will likely die. Our bins consist of some old bath tubs on blocks under the tables in our hoop house. You can use any receptacle you like. I prefer the tubs because they already have a drain, they’re are durable and they’re not made of plastic. We don’t put any citrus, meat, or members of the Allium family ( onions, garlic, etc.) in the bins. We do put manured duck bedding and chopped up banana stalks as the base. When we water our seedlings, the excess water falls through the tables and passes through the bin picking up all kinds of nutrients and beneficial bacteria. We collect this nutrient rich water in a tray placed under the drain in the bottom of the tub. This is our main high potassium liquid fertilizer. And the sticky black castings are garden gold.
18 day Berkeley compost piles.
This is the Great White of the garden! It will eat anything; fish heads, manure, urine, weeds, yard cuttings, even road kill if you have the stomach for it. I composted an iguana once. The key is keeping the temperatures above 131 f. I like to keep mine between 131 f and 149 f ( 55c to 65c ) for as long as possible. At those temperatures, most weed seeds and pathogens are killed. When i first started gardening I read all kinds of books on compost. They mostly just tell you all the things you can’t put in to compost. I’m here to say that is BS! I put whatever i can scrape together in them and it all comes out the same. In fact the more diverse the ingredients the higher the quality compost comes out. I like this method because I start with a cubic yard of material and end up with a cubic yard of compost, more or less. With a cold compost pile, you might lose 80 percent of the volume of the pile and it could take four to six months to breakdown. This method consists of constructing the pile, letting it sit for four days, and then turning the pile every other day for two weeks.
Black soldier fly bin.
This bin is basically just a very large repurposed tote with drain holes in the bottom. There are two spa hoses that lead into a bucket outside the bin. When the BSF larvae are ready to pupate, they will make their way up the hose into the bucket where we harvest them for our ducks and fish. The larvae are extremely high in protein and fat and allow us to cut our feed costs while converting waste food into eggs and fish. We put things like lush fruit, spoiled meat, manure, and bones in here. BSF larvae are very efficient at dispatching waste as they eat ten times their body weight in a day.
This is by far my favorite. It consists of a pit dug in the ground with the spoils piled around the rim to form a donut like mound. Around this are planted species of plant that like moisture and are heavy feeders such as banana, papaya, coconut, squash, sweet potato, taro, etc. The pit is filled with rough mulch and manure. It stays moist for months, especially if you line the bottom with logs. The plants feed centrally saving space and stacking functions. And since there is little light penetration little to no weeds grow. It’s very satisfying to throw big chunky awkward yard debris in the pit. In particular, stuff that would have taken hours to chop up or haul off. And it keeps that organic material out of landfills. We throw in palm fronds, tree branches, junk mail, card board, citrus peels, urine, and cat litter! I’ve even heard of people throwing in tin cans for iron. Our bananas grown in this manner grow like weeds and outpreform all our other clumps, especially in the dry season. These gardens are more intended for the tropics but can be adapted for other climates.
Diverse sheet mulch:
This method is a no brainer and was the preferred method of composting for Bill Mollison. Throw your food scraps, manure, whatever you have on the ground, cover with cardboard, and mulch over with a high carbon mulch. You can add amendments like seaweed, rock dust, blood and bone meal. Then sit back and relax. Ive been doing this method for years, it works great, and I’ve never had a problem with vermin. In the tropics, where i live, organic matter breaks down almost as soon as it hits the ground. The dark moist layer cake that forms is a preferred place for worms and Mycelium.
The most popular compost toilet system for small properties is the lovable loo. It consists of a box with a toilet seat and lid with a bucket inside. After making a deposit, you chuck in a few handfuls of high carbon material like saw dust. Ideally, you would have a urine diverter, this prevents liquids from mixing with solids which is what causes bad smells. Also, the urine is an ideal liquid high nitrogen fertilizer when diluted. We not only use urine as our main fertilizer but also to kickstart out compost. There are lots of compost toilet designs out there and they all work just fine.
If you really want to up your game to the next level there is the biogas digester. Unfortunately, we are not able to have a digester on this property.
Ducks and aquaculture.
Poultry are the great converters. They can turn weeds, insects, even ruminant manures, incredibly, into eggs and meat while producing high phosphorus fertilizer. Ducks, geese, chickens they all have specific functions they can preform. We have a small flock of Indian runner ducks and couldn’t be happier with the breed.
Any other bits and pieces such as green cuttings ( sweet potato vine, comfrey ) and black soldier fly larvae, go to the fish. I even sometimes rinse the duck bowls out in the pond and the fish gobble up all the leftover bits of grain. The ducks also fertilize the pond, feeding zooplankton and phytoplankton. The aquatic plants, algae, and snails go back to the ducks. For details on our 12,000 gallon swimming pool conversion to aquaculture fish pond, go here
All of these systems work because they are positioned in relation to their function. They have to be convenient or you won’t use them. Don’t put you worm bin on the other side of your property if it will receive daily food scraps.
The Japanese have a turm, Satoyama, which can refer to a place but also an approach to agriculture. One of the concepts of Satoyama is that human beings are a part of the local ecosystem. People in Satoyama villages have been living sustainably for millennia. If we want to live a ethical and sustainable lifestyle there is only one thing we must do and that is to put back more than we take. Managing ones waste streams is the first step in that direction.
Six months into our pool to pond conversion and the problem really has become the solution. For some time, we had been flirting with the idea of doing something productive with our unwanted 12,000 gallon in-ground swimming pool. It was during my Permaculture design course with Geoff Lawton last year that I decided to commit to a full conversion to an aquaculture wetland. What seemed like my most daunting project to date has turned out to be one of the best decisions I’ve made.
The design is basically a simple reticulated system. Water is collected from the surface of the pool by the skimmer and the bottom by the pump. The water is then pumped up to a radial flow filter. The Flow filter forces the water to drop what its carrying, preventing the gravel reed bed from getting clogged with sediment.
From here, gravity takes over. Water meanders through three tiered 30”x60” (76 cm x 152 cm) bath tubs, falling from one to the other via a spreader pipe. The water then falls back to the pool through a pipe hidden in a piece of bamboo.
There is a small air pump hidden under the deck and two air stones inside the pool. Water falling from the reed beds, along with the aerator, supply all the oxygenation the system needs. I thought the corner deck would be a nice place to hang out and relax. It also serves as a place to hide some of the plumbing. The deck shades a portion of the pond as well helping to cool the water. Plus any fisherman can tell you fish love to hangout under docks.
Implementing the design:
First step was to do as much research as possible given the fairly uncommon nature of this kind of retrofit. YouTube was indispensable for this task, and Geoff lent some guidance. From here, I could start sketching out some rough ideas and sourcing parts and materials.
Next step was to put together a plant list. Collecting plant material early on allowed me to propagate clones of my aquatic plants while I was going through the design and construction phase. Most aquatic plants have dense tuber like rhizomes that make it simple to divide plants for propagation. An old bath tub from Craigslist made a handy nursery, and with the rampant growth of aquatics I quickly had a good supply of plant starts to kick off the system.
I did my best at this point to finalize the design on paper. That being said, there were a lot of variables that would have to be figured out in situ.
Sourcing pumps and calculating pump size would come next. I decided to go with a 4,000 gallon per hour German made pump from Oase. When choosing a pump you really don’t want to be undersized especially when lifting water. Solar pumps were considered but I decided this would over complicate my first venture into aquaculture. Regardless, savings in electrical costs would be significant over the old pool pump. In the event of prolonged power failure, I will be forced to either destock or run a generator.
Once I had everything I needed on site: pump, bathtubs, gravel, flow filter parts, etc. the pool was drained and the inside was pressure washed.
A note on draining: If you are planning this type of conversion and have a regular chlorinated pool you do not need to drain the pool. Simply stop adding chemicals and continue to run the pump for a week or two. The agitation from the pump will evaporate off the chlorine. Once the pool is green you’re safe to proceed. If you have a salt water system, as I did, you will need to drain the pool and thoroughly clean any salt residue off the inside. This gave me a chance to inspect the inside of the pool so I didn’t mind.
Next, I positioned the reed bed tubs, leveled them, and linked them together with the spreader pipes. After positioning the tank for the radial flow filter, I started constructing the wood enclosure. It’s a good idea to thoroughly test your reed bed system before completely closing it in.
The only thing left was to construct some rock piles in the bottom of the pool for habitat and position the grow bags with plants on the steps and ledges. I filled the pool a few weeks later. Once the system was stable, I added the Gambusia and grass shrimp. Tilapia and crayfish would come later. Lastly I added a bamboo raft of Vetiver grass and another raft with native ferns and kang kong ( ipomea aquatica).
Keep in mind, when you first fill the pool you are going to get an initial algae bloom that will make the water resemble pea soap. Don’t freak out this is natural. After the plant roots start to spread and the gravel builds a thin layer of bioslime, the water should start to clear. Bioslime is the algae and microorganisms that actually clean the water. This should take a few weeks depending on your climate. Tadpoles are very effective at controlling surplus algae as are carp. Frogs and tadpoles are also a good bioindicator due to there sensitivity to toxins so I try to encourage them.
If you are designing a natural swimming pool, your work is finished. The water should be clear in no time. If you are designing an aquaculture system, you can start adding tilapia, crayfish, or whatever species you prefer once the system seems stabilized. The great thing about aquatic systems is if it looks good and there is life in it, its probably is quite safe.
The most satisfying part of this project is seeing the ponds interactions with the other elements in my total design for the property. The pond has become the central element of the garden, interacting with the kitchen garden, duck area, hoop house, and compost area. It’s successful because each element has multiple functions and it’s functions are backed up by multiple elements. Plants come from the hoop house and go to the pond and kitchen garden. Fodder comes from the pond and kitchen garden and goes to the ducks who in turn supply fertilizer to the pond and kitchen garden. Mulch comes from the pond and goes to the compost area and kitchen garden, and so forth. There are all kinds of wildlife interactions happening between the pond and the surrounding food forest. I’m looking forward to seeing these connections become stronger and more dynamic. It can only get better and better with time!
Tank 40g $99
Plants $50 ( most were collected locally but I did buy a few )
Plumbing $150 ( some salvaged pipe was used )
Bath Tubs $105
Grow bags $52.60
Gravel & soil $50
Fish & shrimps $150